Evaluating the impact of possible new measures concerning category L vehicles

  • Published: Transport Research Laboratory, TRL Report CPR383, 2009
  • Authors: T. L. Robinson, M. McCarthy, M. Pitcher, T. Gibson and C. Visvikis
  • Date Added: 08 Mar 2014
  • Last Update: 12 Feb 2016
  • Format: pdf


To investigate the potential social, economic and environmental impact of various technical changes proposed for type approval for motorcycles and other category L vehicles under Directive 2002/24/EC. This was in the context of consideration of wider changes to the legislative context for category L vehicles.


Review of published studies and discussions with stakeholders.

Key Findings:

Within the EU:

  • Mandating advanced braking systems (ABS) for all bikes showed that for injury mitigation there is a benefit cost ratio in the longer term of 3.6 to 4.6 as against doing nothing. Mandating a combination of ABS for larger bikes and combined breaking systems (CBS) for bikes under 125cc also showed a benefit in the longer term (BCR 3.0 to 4.0).

  • The study also looked at the relationship between maximum power and accident risk but was not able to establish a direct link.


Motorcycles, advanced breaking systems, benefit-cost ratio.