Catalogue of the Current Safety Systems, Deliverable 5.2 of the EC FP7 Project DaCoTA

  • Published: EC FP7 Project DaCoTA, 2012
  • Authors: D. Atalar, P. Thomas, A, Kirk, P. Evgenikos, P. Papantoniou, T. Hermite, P Van Elslande
  • Date Added: 24 Jun 2013
  • Last Update: 24 Jun 2013
  • Format: pdf

Objectives: To collate information about each type of safety system to inform safety system evaluation.

Methodology: Collation of information about safety systems in an Excel spreadsheet

Key Findings:

  • The assembled Excel sheets have been created to act as a central place in which analysts can quickly acquire information including:

    • System studied;

    • Aims of the system;

    • Functions covered by the system (intentional and unintentional);

    • Phases of the RTI sequence upon which the system is acting;

    • Level of intervention;

    • Technical specifications; and,

    • Previous evaluations.

  • The safety systems included are categorised as one of the following:

    • Visibility;

    • Dynamic Control longitudinal;

    • Driver behaviour;Warning;

    • Dynamic control lateral;

    • Communication;

    • Localization;

    • Prevention; and,

    • Speed.

  • AAFLS - Advanced Adaptive Front Light System - Predominantly AAFLS refers to headlights that turn relative to the vehicle to boost visibility through bends (in reaction to steering angle and sometimes yaw) although some systems can also adjust the light pattern for different road speeds and visibility (for example narrower beam on motorways). AAFLSs provide improved vision in darkness and poor visibility (weather conditions) when manoeuvring through bends.

  • Other technologies closely associated with AAFLS are Cornering light assist and Auto high beam assist. Cornering Light Assist illuminates to wider than traditional angle when turning corners (especially at junctions). This can provide extra light or an extension to AAFLS. Auto High Beam is a feature that takes over the switching of high beam lights away from the driver to improve vision and to avoid dazzling oncoming drivers.

  • Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) - If a leading vehicle is travelling at a lower speed than the user’s vehicle, or is located within the preset time or distance headway, the ACC system intervenes via braking pressure or throttle/engine torque control so that the headway increases. The system only intervenes if the current preselected speed or control so that the headway increases. The system only intervenes if the current preselected speed or headway would lead to a likely RTI or the speed would reduce the set headway. ACC may employ radar, laser or machine vision to continuously monitor the leading vehicle. Auxiliary detectors also monitor the speed, yaw and cornering rate of the vehicle to maintain tracking of the leading vehicle in the same lane when cornering rate of the vehicle to maintain tracking of the leading vehicle in the same lane when cornering. ACC keeps a set distance to vehicle in front and can detect fixed obstacles on the road.

  • Brake Assist (BA) often referred to as Emergency Brake Assist (EBA) –These systems have become mandatory for all newly launched car and light commercial vehicle types in the EU. The regulation will apply to all new vehicles from 2011 as part of a new EU regulation that aims to improve pedestrian safety. A brake assist system monitors the driver’s use of the brake pedal, automatically sensing an attempt to stop the car as a result of panic. It then generates very high braking power, even when the driver is only pressing lightly on the brake pedal. When this is used together with anti-lock braking systems, it results in faster and safer braking.

  • Collision avoidance (CA) also referred to as Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) - With the aid of radar, LIDAR and/or camera systems, this technology actively assesses the driving environment for potential hazards. In particular current systems address rear end RTIs but an oncoming vehicle will also activate the system. The systems typically first warn of a potential RTI and then most then provide a level of braking support:

    • Enhancement of the driver’s braking;

    • Partial automatic braking; and,

    • Full braking.

  • RTI avoidance is expected to save a total of 9,000 severe and 53,000 slight injuries, corresponding to 10 per cent and 14 per cent of total severe and slight injuries in Germanyrespectively.

  • Electronic stability control (ESC) - ESC stabilises the vehicle and prevent skidding under all driving conditions and driving situation within the physical limits by active brake intervention on one or more wheels and by intelligent engine torque management. In the EU ESC will be mandatory in all new types of vehicle from 2011 and for all new vehicles from 2014.

  • Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) - ISA describes any system which either warns the driver or automatically limits the speed of the vehicle when it exceeds the legal speed limit of a given area. These systems establish the location of the vehicle and compare the current speed with what is the posted speed for that location. If the vehicle exceeds this speed, the system takes effect, either be in the form of a visual or auditory warning (informative system), or intervention (actively supporting systems). Actively supporting systems may provide haptic feedback to the driver through increased pressure or vibration in the accelerator pedal, but this can be overridden by the user. Mandatory ISA automatically takes effect and lowers the speed if the vehicle exceeds the speed limit.

  • Lane Keeping Assistant (LKA) – is an extension of lane departure warning systems. LKA systems actively support the driver in maintaining lane position. These systems monitor the vehicles lane position with image processing technology in the same manner as lane departure warning systems. LKA provides additional torque to the steering wheel, which increases the resistance in the steering wheel. This makes it more difficult for the vehicle to drift, therefore reducing the occurrence of minor variations in lane position. This minimises the need for driver to make small corrections in lane position.

  • Predictive Brake Assist (PBA) - Uses the vehicle's sensors from ACC and CA (predominantly radar) to detect impending emergency braking situation. Pilot pressure is applied to the brake system so that the required brake pressure can be generated more quickly, and the brakes are applied very gently so that the driver doesn't notice. In addition PBA lowers the triggering threshold for the hydraulic brake-assist system. After this initial phase the system then acts like Brake Assist.

  • Vulnerable RoadUsers Protection (VRU) – A RTI avoidance system that can detect pedestrians, cyclists and animals. The system calculates in a matter of seconds the movement of pedestrians within the "capture" zone which can be up to 30 meters away from the vehicle. The camera tracks the pedestrian movement and the information is correlated with the data received from the radar network. The system applies the brakes if the driver does not.

  • Anti-lock brakes (ABS) – ABS prevents skidding by avoiding the brakes locking the wheels, the system maintains some steering control by avoiding skidding and for most drivers, decreases stopping distances on dry and wet road surfaces. Anti-lock on cars has been mandatory in the EU since 2004.

  • Rollover Detection (RollD) - Active Rollover Protection is designed to help stabilize a vehicle in order to help reduce the risk of a rollover. This system focuses on the vehicle’s centre of gravity and the lateral acceleration limit or rollover threshold. The system constantly monitors driving conditions and intervenes if critical lateral acceleration is detected. The system provides control of engine and retarded torque as well as automatically activates the drive axle and trailer brakes. Roll stability control systems take corrective action, such as throttle control or braking, when sensors detect that a vehicle is in a potential rollover situation.

  • Automated lights - headlights and rear lights (driving lights) are activated if driver forgets to activate them in darkness. Headlights and rear lights are switched on if the vehicle enters a tunnel or other covered area (multi story car park or road lined with dense trees). This system only works if the light switch is always in automatic position.

  • Low Friction Detection (LoFrctD) – The system aims to warn the driver of low friction levels on the road surface ahead and prepares ADAS systems for a low friction surface.

  • Youth Key (YK) – The system aims to limit vehicle performance or functionally with the aim of encouraging safer driving or riding - in particular for young people, although this could be extended. Programmable key that can limit a vehicle's top speed, limit radio volume and encourage safety-belt usage by muting the radio until front occupants buckle up. Marketed by Ford in USA as MyKey. Standard or option on all vehicles. No evidence of adoption for Europeby Ford.

Themes:

Active safety, interventions

Comments:

Provides useful information about a number of safety systems.

Free (See link below and http://www.dacota-project.eu/Deliverables/DaCoTA_D5.2_v3.0_pu_13Jan12.xls)