Manual for Streets

  • Published: WSP, with Llewelyn Davies Yeang (LDY), Phil Jones Associates (PJA) and TRL Limited on behalf of the Department for Transport, 2007
  • Authors: WSP, with Llewelyn Davies Yeang (LDY), Phil Jones Associates (PJA) and TRL Limited
  • Date Added: 18 Apr 2013
  • Last Update: 18 Apr 2013
  • Format: pdf


To recommend revised key geometric design criteria to allow streets to be designed as places in their own right while still ensuring that road safety is maintained.


Guidance document.

Key Findings:

  • A clear distinction can be drawn between streets and roads. Roads are essentially highways whose main function is accommodating the movement of motor traffic. Streets are typically lined with buildings and public spaces, and while movement is still a key function, there are several others, of which the place function is the most important.

  • Accommodating parked vehicles is a key function of most streets, particularly in residential areas. While the greatest demand is for parking cars, there is also a need to consider the parking of cycles, motorcycles and, in some circumstances, service vehicles.

  • The way cars are parked is a key factor for many issues, such as visual quality, street activity, interaction between residents, and safety.

  • A failure to properly consider this issue is likely to lead to inappropriate parking behaviour, resulting in poor and unsafe conditions for pedestrians.

  • Parking can be provided on or off the street. Off-street parking includes parking within a curtilage (on-plot) or in off-street parking areas (off-plot).

  • On-street parking can introduce a road safety problem, particularly if traffic speeds are above 20mph and there are few places for pedestrians to cross with adequate visibility.

  • Generally the most appropriate solution will be to design for a level of on-street parking that takes account of the following factors:

    • The overall level of car ownership in the immediate area;

    • The amount of off-street parking provided;

    • The amount of allocated parking provided;

    • The speed and volume of traffic using the street; and,

    • The width and geometry of the street and its junctions.

  • Footway parking (also called pavement parking) causes hazards and inconvenience to pedestrians. It creates particular difficulties for blind or partially-sighted people, disabled people and older people, or those with prams or pushchairs. It is therefore recommended that footway parking be prevented through the design of the street.

  • Footway parking may also cause damage to the kerb, the footway and the services underneath. Repairing such damage can be costly and local authorities may face claims for compensation for injuries received resulting from damaged or defective footways.

  • It is also possible to deter footway parking through physical measures, such as by installing bollards, raised planters or other street furniture, and by clearly indicating where people should park.

  • Derby City Council – tackling footway parking. In a number of footway parking hot-spots in Derby, the Council placed ‘Parking on Pavements’ leaflets on vehicles parked on the footway. These leaflets give a clear message as to the negative effects of footway parking, along with an indication of the penalties that footway parkers could incur. Since 2002, over 300 ‘Parking on Pavements’ leaflets have been placed on vehicles in hot spots, and the effect on footway parking has been positive.


Parking, Safety, Footway parking.


Provides one intervention example. Overall limited reference to safety.