Parking Measures and Policies Research Review

  • Published: TRL prepared for the Department for Transport, 2010
  • Authors: D. Palmer and C. Ferris
  • Date Added: 18 Apr 2013
  • Last Update: 12 Feb 2016
  • Format: pdf


To investigate the evidence about the impact of different types of parking measures and policies on road traffic, congestion and transport safety, car ownership, on the level of carbon emissions from transport, on the activity of businesses, and on townscapes. The project aimed to support the Department for Transport’s (DfT) analytical and modelling capability in terms of improving its understanding of how economic activity is affected by transport investment and interventions such as parking.


Systematic review of evidence from original and relevant studies.

Key Findings:

  • The term ‘parking’ can be used to describe:

    • The infrastructure provided for the storage of vehicles whether on or off-street; and

    • Parking as an activity forming part of the overall process of car travel.

  • The types of parking to be found at origins varies:

    • Private off-street parking;

    • Public off-street parking (short stay, long-stay, contract);

    • Controlled (paid) on-street parking; and

    • Uncontrolled (free) on-street parking.

  • Destinations may be categorised in a variety of ways:

    • General town centres (including P&R and controlled (paid) on-street parking);

    • Railway stations;

    • Shopping centres;

    • Workplaces - Private Non-Residential (PNR) parking;

    • Stadia; and

    • Airports.

  • In undertaking this research we have considered the policy context set by DaSTS (Delivering a Sustainable Transport System, DfT, 2008) which sets out five goals for our transport system, one of these goals is related to safety:

    • To contribute to better safety, security and health and longer life expectancy by reducing the risk of death, injury or illness arising from transport, and by promoting travel modes that are beneficial to health.


Parking, On street, Off street.


Useful definitions related to parking but overall little reference to safety aspects.